Andrew Hudson

TOPIC: Anesthetic effects on spontaneous neuronal activity in vivo

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • MD, PhD, Assistant Professor
  • The University of California, Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine

 

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH: Dr. Hudson’s research uses anesthetics to study unconscious states of the nervous system and recovery from anesthesia.

 

Jiro Kurata

TOPIC: Cerebral signatures of pain chronification

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • D., Ph.D., Junior Associate Professor of Anesthesiology
  • Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital of Medicine

 

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

After obtaining a Ph.D. degree in Kyoto, Japan from his series of research on the central nervous system effects of anaesthetics using electrophysiological and histochemical techniques in animal models, Jiro Kurata moved on to start functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the mechanisms of anaesthetic-induced unconsciousness and pain perception at University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A., in 1998. Here he authored several articles on pain-related cerebral activities and proposed a novel concept of neuroimaging approach to studying general anaesthetic effects and consciousness. Since he obtained a faculty position in Tokyo, Japan in 2002, he started up a neuroimaging laboratory as a primary investigator to inquire how general anaesthetics disrupt information processing and consciousness in the brain and how chronic pain alters cerebral sensory and cognitive networks. He has obtained several extramural grants (KAKENHI) from the Japanese government and currently leads a research team with up to 10 undergrad/postgrad students. He chaired the 9th International Symposium on Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia (MAA9) in Tokyo, Japan in 2014 (http://maa9.umin.jp/). His recent research topics include:

  1. Cross-correlogram analysis of cortico-cortical information transfer in epileptic patients under sevoflurane anaesthesia.
  2. Characterization of low back pain-related activities in chronic low back pain patients.
  3. Attenuation of reward and descending pain modulatory system activities in chronic low back pain patients.
  4. Obtundation of offset analgesia response in chronic pain patients and its cerebral correlates revealed by fMRI.
  5. Insular cortical atrophy and its association with dysfunctional reward network in chronic pain patients.
  6. Atrophy of pain-related networks is associated with attenuated connectivity of the descending pain modulatory system in chronic low back pain patients.
  7. Chronic pain patients show decreased white matter integrity in proximity to the cingulate cortex.

 

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS

  • Attenuation of cortical activity triggering descending pain inhibition in chronic low back pain patients: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Anesth 2017; DOI: 10.1007/s00540-017-2343-1
  • Dysfunction of nucleus accumbens is associated with psychiatric problems in patients with chronic low back pain – a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Spine 2016; DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001930
  • Mining the hidden dysrhythmia – can machines get smarter at defining the anaesthetised state? Anaesthesia 70:1338-41, 2015
  • Memory and awareness in anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2015; DOI: 10.1093/bja/aev224
  • Deep hypnosis as a sign of “imbalance” in balanced anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2010; 110:663-5
  • Augmented cerebral activation by lumbar mechanical stimulus in chronic low back pain patients: an FMRI study. Spine 2009; 34:2431-6
  • The cross-modal interaction between pain-related and saccade-related cerebral activation: a preliminary study by event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Anesth Analg 2005; 101:449-56
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging explained for pain research and medicine. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2002; 27:68-71
  • Early decay of pain-related cerebral activation in functional magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with visual and motor tasks. Anesthesiology 96:35-44, 2002
  • Use of positron emission tomography to measure brain activity responses to fentanyl analgesia. Curr Rev Pain 1999; 3:359-66
  • Effect of xenon on central nervous system electrical activity during sevoflurane anaesthesia in cats: comparison with nitrous oxide. Br J Anaeth 1998; 80:628-33
  • The effect of xenon on spinal dorsal horn neurons: a comparison with nitrous oxide. Anesth Analg 1997; 84:1372-6
  • Halothane and diazepam inhibit ketamine-induced c-fos expression in the rat cingulate cortex. Anesthesiology 1996; 85:874-82
  • Sevoflurane, enflurane and isoflurane have no persistent postanaesthetic effects on the central nervous system in cats. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76:721-5
  • The cerebral cortex origin of enflurane-induced generalized seizure in cats. 1994; 79:713-8

Lis Evered

TOPIC: Perioperative Cognitive Disorders

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

Associate Professor; St Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne and University of Melbourne

www.svha.org.au | www.cognition.org.au

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Lisbeth has a Masters in Biostatistics and a PhD in neuroscience and holds a NHMRC/ARC Dementia Research Fellowship through University of Melbourne. Lisbeth is Scientific Head of Research at St. Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne. She has many publications in basic research and in cognitive clinical research. Lisbeth is an invited speaker at many international conferences. Lisbeth founded and is current Co-Chair of the Perioperative Cognition Professional Interest Area (PIA) of the Alzheimer’s Association (US) and is an elected Director of the ISTAART Advisory council. She is Senior Editor for Anesthesia & Analgesia, and a reviewer for many peer-reviewed journals including NEJM, neurology and British Journal of Anaesthesia. She is the recipient of more than $5M in NHMRC project grants and other competitive funding. Lisbeth is Chair of the International nomenclature consensus working party which has revised postoperative cognitive disorders from research to clinical guidelines. Her main area of research interest is identifying the impact of surgery and anaesthesia on the cognitive trajectory of older individuals, and identifying preoperative interventions to reduce postoperative decline.

Robert A. Veselis

TOPIC: The memory edifice: what do we believe?

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • D. Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY
  • Vice Chair for Research
  • Department of Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine
  • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ce
    nter

1275 York Ave., New York, NY 10065-6007

Phone: 212 639 7724

Fax: 646 422 2293

Email: veselisr@mskcc.org

Member, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Dr. Veselis received his MD degree from the University of Toronto, anesthesia training at Duke University, North Carolina, and Critical Care Fellowship at University of Virginia, Charlottesville. Dr. Veselis has spent most of his career at MSKCC, developing a research program focused on mechanisms of the amnestic actions of anesthetic drugs, as investigated in healthy human volunteers. Recently Dr. Veselis has focused on more clinical aspects of cognition in the peri-operative period, including delirium, anesthesia related outcomes, pediatric sedation, and neuromonitoring. He is currently Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine.

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

  • Avidan, M. S., Fritz, B. A.,Maybrier, H. R.,Muench, M. R.,Escallier, K. E.,Chen, Y.,Ben Abdallah, A.,Veselis, R. A.,Hudetz, J. A.,Pagel, P. S.,Noh, G.,Pryor, K.,Kaiser, H.,Arya, V. K.,Pong, R.,Jacobsohn, E.,Grocott, H. P.,Choi, S.,Downey, R. J.,Inouye, S. K.,Mashour, G. A. 2014. The Prevention of Delirium and Complications Associated with Surgical Treatments (PODCAST) study: protocol for an international multicentre randomised controlled trial BMJ Open 2014; 4:e005651.10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005651
  • Pryor KO, Root JC, Mehta M, Stern E, Pan H, Veselis RA, Silbersweig DA. Propofol amnesia is predicted by changes in hippocampal but not amygdala activation at the time of encoding: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects. Br J Anaesth, 2015, 115:i104-i113
  • Veselis RA: Memory formation during anesthesia: plausibility of a neurophysiologic basis, Br J Anaesth, 2015, 115:i13-i19
  • Mason KP, Kelhoffer E, Prescilla R, Mehta M, Root JC, Young V, Robinson F, Veselis R.: Feasibility of Measuring Memory Response to increasing Dexmedetomidine Sedation in Children (accepted) BrJAnaes BJA-2016-00045-PM005.R1
  • Veselis RA, Kelhoffer E, Mehta M, Root JC, Robinson F, Mason KP: Propofol Sedation in Children: Sleep Trumps Amnesia, SLEEP, InPress SLEEP-D-16-00139.

Michael Wang

TOPIC: Awake paralysis – the heart of AAGA PTSD

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • MSc(Clin.Psy), PhD, C. Psychol., FBPsS
  • Emeritus Professor of Clinical Psychology; Honorary Consultant Clinical Psychologist
    University of Leicester; University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust BSc(Hons)

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Michael Wang is Emeritus Professor of Clinical Psychology in the College of Medicine, Biological Science and Psychology, University of Leicester UK, and Honorary Consultant Clinical Psychologist in Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Management at Leicester Royal Infirmary UK. He is a former Chair of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the British Psychological Society. He has worked as a clinical psychologist for more than 35 years, treating patients with PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, obsessional compulsive disorder, and in particular, psychological problems arising from unplanned anaesthetic and surgical incidents. He has worked closely with anaesthetists in both clinical and research contexts for more than 20 years. Alongside Dr Ian Russell he has championed the Isolated Forearm Technique as the gold standard for detecting intra-operative consciousness. In 2004 he organized the 6th International Symposium on Memory and Awareness in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, and has published numerous papers and book chapters on this topic. He was made a Fellow of the British Psychological Society in 1999 in recognition of this work. He is also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine. He has written invited chapters in anaesthetic texts and is an invited co-author of a Cochrane review on the prevention of anaesthetic awareness. He is a member of the expert advisory panel on depth of anaesthesia monitoring of the National Institute of Clinical Health Excellence (NICE) and also of the joint Royal College of Anaesthetists/Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland national audit project on anaesthetic awareness (NAP5). In 2015 he was awarded the Humphry Davy Medal by the Royal College of Anaesthetists for his contributions to the understanding of accidental awareness under general anaesthesia.

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

  • Messina AG, Wang M, Ward MJ, Wilker CC, Smith BB, Vezina DP, Pace NL. 2016

Anaesthetic interventions for prevention of awareness during surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 18;10:CD007272

  • Wang, M, Messina, A, Russell I 2012

The topography of awareness: a classification of intra-operative cognitive states.

Anaesthesia 67:1197-1201 

  • Wang, M, Deeprose, C, Andrade, J, Russell, I 2013

Psychology in the operating theatre: What can general anaesthesia tell us about consciousness, learning and memory?

The Psychologist 26: 498-5001

  • Russell, I., Wang, M. 2014

Isolated forearm and consciousness

Anaesthesia 69: 78-80

Ken Solt

TOPIC: Stimulating Subcortical Arousal Circuits to Induce Reanimation from General Anesthesia

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • Associate Professor of Anaesthesia, Harvard Medical School
  • Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine
    Massachusetts General Hospital

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Ken Solt is an attending anesthesiologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, and Associate Professor of Anaesthesia at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts. He received the NIH Director’s Transformative Research Award in 2012, and the James S. McDonnell Foundation Scholar Award in Understanding Human Cognition in 2014. Solt uses a systems neuroscience approach to study the role of subcortical arousal circuits in emergence from general anesthesia. In the laboratory he combines neural circuit manipulations, neurophysiological recordings, and cognitive testing in rodents to induce reanimation, or active emergence from general anesthesia. He is also conducting clinical trials in surgical patients to test the efficacy of dopaminergic stimulants for accelerating emergence, reducing delirium, and improving post-operative cognitive function. His long-term goal is to elucidate the neural mechanisms of emergence from general anesthesia, and to develop therapeutic options for common clinical problems such as delayed emergence and post-operative delirium.

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

www.soltlab.com

Harry Scheinin

 

TOPIC: Using General Anesthesia as a Tool to Study Consciousness

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • MD, PhD, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
  • Adjunct Professor in Pharmacology, University of Turku, Finland
  • Staff Anesthesiologist, Terveystalo Pulssi, Turku, Finland

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Harry Scheinin leads the Anesthesia Mechanisms Research Group at the University of Turku, Finland, and has studied the human neurobiology of anesthetic a
gents for 20 years. He is the Principal Investigator of the ongoing Neural Mechanisms of Anesthesia and Human Consciousness project (NCT01889004 and NCT02624401).

Education and Training (selected)

  • M.D., Ph.D. (Pharmacology)
  • Specialist in Clinical pharmacology
  • Specialist in Anesthesiology

Previous Professional Appointments (selected)

  • Medical Director, Farmos Group and Orion Corporation, Turku, Finland                                                                1986−1992
  • Guest Scientist, Dept. of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden 1994−1995
  • Staff Anesthesiologist and Senior Physician, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland        1997−1999
  • Professor, Drug Discovery and Development, Turku PET Centre, University of Turku               1999−2007

Recent Research Funding

  • Academy of Finland                                                                                                                                                                2013−2017
  • Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation                                                                                                                                 2015−2018

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

140 peer reviewed original communications, 12 articles in scientific compilations or printed congress reports, 40 review articles and editorials, 9 publications intended for the general public, 16 chapters in textbooks, 5 patents or patent applications, 15 other publications and 137 congress abstracts.

Most important publications

  • Kaisti KK, Långsjö JW, Aalto S, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Teräs M, Hinkka S, Metsähonkala L, Scheinin H. Effects of sevoflurane, propofol, and adjunct nitrous oxide on regional cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption, and blood volume in humans. Anesthesiology 2003;99:603-613.
  • Långsjö JW, Alkire MT, Kaskinoro K, Hayama H, Maksimow A, Kaisti KK, Aalto S, Aantaa R, Jääskeläinen SK, Revonsuo A, Scheinin H. Returning from oblivion: imaging the neural core of consciousness; J Neurosci 2012;32:4935-4943.
  • Laitio R, Hynninen M, Arola O, Virtanen S, Parkkola R, Saunavaara J, Roine RO, Grönlund J, Ylikoski E, Wennervirta J, Bäcklund M, Silvasti P, Nukarinen E, Tiainen M, Saraste A, Pietilä M, Airaksinen J, Valanne L, Martola J, Silvennoinen H, Scheinin H, Harjola VP, Niiranen J, Korpi K, Varpula M, Inkinen O, Olkkola KT, Maze M, Vahlberg T, Laitio T. Effect of inhaled xenon on cerebral white matter damage in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016; 315:1120-1128.

Jamie Sleigh

TOPIC: General anaesthesia as fragmentation of selfhood: EEG and FMRI evidence.

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • MBChB, FANZCA, Dip App Stat, MD. Professor of Anaesthesia
  • Department of Anaesthesia, Waikato Clinical Campus, University of Auckland, New Zealand

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Jamie Sleigh is Professor of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care at the Waikato Clinical School, of the University of Auckland, Hamilton, New Zealand. He grew up in Zimbabwe, and specialised in anaesthesia in the United Kingdom, before moving to New Zealand in 1988. He has practiced in both intensive care medicine and anaesthesia – with particular interests in anaesthesia for vascular surgery and neurosurgery. His current research interests include: the practical use of EEG in anaesthesia; EEG signal processing; the modelling of brain dynamics in anaesthesia, sleep, and seizures; pharmacokinetics of anaesthetic drugs; and the development of ketamine ester analogues.

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

  • Warnaby CE, Seretny M, Mhuircheartaigh RN, Rogers R, Jbabdi S, Sleigh J, Tracey I. Anesthesia-induced Suppression of Human Dorsal Anterior Insula Responsivity at Loss of Volitional Behavioral Response. Anesthesiology. 2016 Apr;124(4):766-78.
  • Liang Z, Ren Y, Yan J, Li D, Voss LJ, Sleigh JW, Li X. A comparison of different synchronization measures in electroencephalogram during propofol anesthesia. J Clin Monit Comput. 2015 Sep 8.
  • Sleigh J, Hight D. What would a proper explanation of anesthesia look like? Anesthesiology. 2015 Jun;122(6):1196-7.
  • Harvey M, Sleigh J, Voss L, Jose J, Gamage S, Pruijn F, Liyanage S, Denny W Development of Rapidly Metabolized and Ultra-Short-Acting Ketamine Analogs. Anesth Analg. Oct 2015;121(4):925-33.
  • Martin JC, Liley DT, Harvey AS, Kuhlmann L, Sleigh JW, Davidson AJ. Alterations in the Functional Connectivity of Frontal Lobe Networks Preceding Emergence Delirium in Children. Anesthesiology. 2014 Jul 23. Oct;121(4):740-52.
  • Chander D, García PS, MacColl JN, Illing S, Sleigh JW. Electroencephalographic Variation during End Maintenance and Emergence from Surgical Anesthesia. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 29;9(9).
  • Williams ML, Sleigh JW. Auditory recall and response to command during recovery from propofol anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 1999 Jun;27(3):265-8

Jaideep J Pandit

TOPIC: Implementing the NAP5 results into practice – and guiding the research agenda

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • Professor, MA, BM, DPhil, FRCA, FFPMRCA, DM
  • Consultant Anaesthetist, Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, Oxford University Hospitals
  • Fellow, St John’s College, Oxford

Website: https://www.sjc.ox.ac.uk/discover/people/professor-jaideep-pandit/

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Professor Pandit is Consultant Anaesthetist at the Oxford University Hospitals. He trained in Medicine at Oxford (Corpus Christi College) where he obtained a First in Physiology, and university prizes in Medicine, Cardiology and Clinical Pharmacology. After a Wellcome Trust Research Fellowship to support a DPhil in Respiratory Physiology, he undertook his anaesthetic training in the Oxford region. He was Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA (1998-9), appointed to his NHS Consultant post at the John Radcliffe in 1999 and elected to St John’s 2000.

As Fellow of St John’s College, he teaches Systems Physiology and Pharmacology. His research interests include: respiratory physiology, anaesthesia and critical care, health economics and operating room management and mechanisms of anaesthetic drug action.

Professor Pandit was the Academic Strategy Officer of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (2005-7), publishing the National Strategy for Academic Anaesthesia – a policy document commissioned to help prepare the specialty nationally for changes in academic medical training. For 2015-16 he serves as external Examiner to the University of Kent. He is an Editor of Anaesthesia. He sits on the Research Council of the National Institute of Academic Anaesthesia and is Scientific Officer of the national Difficult Airway Society (the largest specialist society in anaesthetics in the UK). In 2010 he was elected Chairman of the John Radcliffe Medical Staff Committee (chairman of consultants) for a 4-year term and the first consultant re-elected to a second term 2014. In 2014 he published the international report (NAP5, UK and Ireland) on ‘Accidental Awareness during General Anaesthesia’, culmination of a 4-year Royal College project making over 60 recommendations for clinical practice. In 2016, he was appointed by NHS England to be a Clinical Associate, to advise on its New Care Models program.

At the University he has been Chairman of Examiners, Graduate-Entry Medical Exams and has served as examiner for Final Honour School. He is Training Program Director for over 400 NHS consultants in Oxford, supervising their specialist registration as trainers with the General Medical Council, and through NHS England is seconded part-time to advise as Associate Director of Education to Worcestershire Acute Hospitals, where he sits on the development board of the new Aston Medical School.

National and international awards include the Royal College Gold (Jubilee) Medal (2000), Humphry Davy Medal (2006), Macintosh Professorship (2012), and the Spring Silver Medal (2012) of the College of Anaesthetists of Ireland. In 2013 he is Visiting Professor of the US Society of Anesthesiologists’ Foundation for Education & Research and has been Visiting Professor 2015 to several US centres (Anesthesia at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Florida and Harvard Universities; Neurology at University of Texas Southwestern) and appointed Associate Professor, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford. He delivered the Victor Horsley Lecture of the British Medical Association 2015 and in 2017 will be Jobson Visiting Professor at the University of Sydney, Australia.

Ian Russell

TOPIC: History of the MAA Symposia

TITLES AND INSTITUTION:

  • FRCA, MB ChB, B Med Biol (Hons)
  • Retired, but previo
    usly Consultant Anaesthetist, Hull Royal Infirmary, Kingston upon Hull, England (1981 to 2013).

BIOGRAPHY AND AREAS OF RESEARCH:

Graduated B. Med. Biol. (Hons)
in physiology & pharmacology (1970) and MB, ChB (1973) from Aberdeen University. FFARCS (London, 1977). Has had a long-term interest in consciousness during general anaesthesia since working with Mike Tunstall and using the Isolated Forearm Technique during caesarean section in the late 1970s. Modified the IFT for more general use outside the obstetric operating theatres and, in collaboration with Michael Wang, investigated the occurrence of intraoperative consciousness with various anaesthetics (total intravenous & inhalational) and monitoring methods (from pulse rate & blood pressure to Anaesthesia Brain Monitors). These studies showed a clear separation of consciousness & responsiveness during general anaesthesia and subsequent post-operative recall, resulting in the IFT being described as the Gold Standard (for the assessment of intra-operative consciousness) against which all other methods should be compared.

SELECTION OF PUBLICATIONS:

IFT studies, a series of studies demonstrating that clinical signs were no good for preventing  consciousness during surgery/anaesthesia, that intra-operative awareness is not the same as post-op recall (ie the normal definition of anaesthetic awareness), and latterly, a series of papers illustrating that one cannot use the Narcotrend or the BIS monitor to guide the administration of anaesthesia, and at the same time prevent intra-operative awareness. These were the first studies to put a “brain monitor” through a “proper” test based in intra-operative awareness and not post-op recall.